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Pour Point
Specific Gravity
Thermal Expansion
Bulk Modulus
Gases in Mineral Oil
Vapor Pressure
Flash Point
Thermal Conductivity
Specifice Heat
Electrical Conductivity
Surface Tension
Base Oil
Petroleum, or crude oil, naturally occurring oily, bituminous liquid composed of various organic chemicals. It is found in large quantities below the surface of Earth and is used as a fuel and as a raw material in the chemical industry. Modern industrial societies use it primarily to achieve a degree of mobility on land, at sea, and in the air, that was barely imaginable less than a century ago. In addition, petroleum and its derivatives are used in the manufacture of medicines and fertilizers, foodstuffs, plastics, building materials, paints, and cloth and to generate electricity
The chemical composition of all petroleum is principally hydrocarbons, although a few sulfur-containing and oxygen-containing compounds are usually present; the sulfur content varies from about 0.1 to 5 percent. Petroleum contains gaseous, liquid, and solid elements. The consistency of petroleum varies from liquid as thin as gasoline to liquid so thick that it will barely pour. Small quantities of gaseous compounds are usually dissolved in the liquid; when larger quantities of these compounds are present, the petroleum deposit is associated with a deposit of natural gas
Three broad classes of crude petroleum are the paraffin types, the asphaltic types, and the mixed-base types. The paraffin types are composed of molecules in which the number of hydrogen atoms is always two more than twice the number of carbon atoms. The characteristic molecules in the asphaltic types are naphthenes, composed of twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms. In the mixed-base group are both paraffin hydrocarbons and naphthenes.

This section offers the learning of Technical and general information needed to understand the quality and behaviour of lubricants, how desired physical and chemical properties are developed in a lubricant and understanding of Phenomenon and widely used terminologies